Download eBook Fish nutrition can be the deciding factor between a robust and healthy farmed fish population and low aquaculture production. In an age where chemicals and antibiotics are under greater scrutiny than ever, a strong understanding of the role of nutrients and feed additives is essential in the aquaculture industry. Dietary Nutrients, Additives and Fish Health is a comprehensive review of dietary nutrients, antinutritional factors and toxins, and non-nutrient dietary additives, and their effects on fish performance and immune system function, as well as overall health. The book opens with an overview of fish immune systems and health. Subsequent chapters delve into proteins and amino acids, lipids and fatty acids, carbohydrates, beta glucans, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients, mycotoxins, nucleotides, prebiotics, probiotics, organic acids and their salts, and plant extracts and their impacts on fish health, growth, and development. The text then concludes with a chapter on feeding practices.
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Email: asi ksu. Organic acids include formic, fumaric, lactic, benzoic, propionic, and citric acids. Inorganic acids include hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids.
Salts of acids also have been used as acidifiers, including calcium-formate, potassium-diformate, sodium-diformate, and sodium-fumarate. Blends of acidifiers are often commercially available because organic and inorganic acids may have a synergistic effect. In addition, some commercial acidifiers contain protected acids that are coated with fatty acids or other molecules, mainly to allow the release of the acid in a targeted location in the gut with the goal to improve effectiveness Upadhaya et al.
The mode of action of dietary acidifiers has not been fully understood, but several mechanisms have been proposed.
Acidifiers are believed to enhance growth performance via pH reduction in the digestive tract, which improves nutrient digestibility and promotes growth of beneficial bacterial while inhibiting pathogenic bacteria Jacela et al. Acidifiers have been commonly targeted for weanling pigs. Organic acids have been shown to improve growth performance of weanling pigs more consistently than inorganic acids Kil et al.
However, inorganic acids have been often considered as an alternative to organic acids because of lower cost. Acidifiers may also benefit grow-finish pigs Tung and Pettigrew, , particularly under transition or stressful conditions. In sows, use of acidifiers in the diet improves nutrient digestibility and reduces urinary pH, which aids in controlling the incidence of urinary tract infections Kluge et al. The magnitude and consistency of the responses to acidifiers are variable depending on the nature of acids, inclusion rate, combination of acids, and diet composition Jacela et al.
For most acidifiers, the inclusion of excessive levels in the diet affects palatability and decreases feed intake. Also, some acidifiers are corrosive and pose handling and equipment issues during feed manufacturing. Generally, inorganic acids are the most corrosive and salts of acids are the least corrosive acid forms.
Acidifiers In Animal Nutrition
Email: asi ksu. Organic acids include formic, fumaric, lactic, benzoic, propionic, and citric acids. Inorganic acids include hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids. Salts of acids also have been used as acidifiers, including calcium-formate, potassium-diformate, sodium-diformate, and sodium-fumarate. Blends of acidifiers are often commercially available because organic and inorganic acids may have a synergistic effect.