Reports on the study were published in focusing on the United States and in focusing on Canada. Though the goals of the study were unrelated to homeschooling, best research practices required that incidental data also be collected on homeschool graduates. The Cardus publications relied on random samples of homeschool graduates whose responses to various surveys were weighted based on the number of respondents and then weighted again for a number of demographic factors. As such, the Cardus survey is one of the only studies of a representative sample of homeschool graduates—and one of the only studies whose results can be applied to the larger population of all homeschoolers.
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The report suggests that non-government schools are important contributors to education in Canada , that they contribute citizens that enhance the public good , and that these schools may have best practices that could be shared across all education systems. On September 26, , in an interview with Michael Coren , Ray Pennings the chair and coordinator of the Cardus Education Survey described what the report examined.
We show the raw numbers. We control for social economic status and faith background. So we are really saying, you take a hundred kids, same amount of rich and poor, same amount of church and non-church.
We have two groups of a kids. We send these to public schools. We send these kids to independent schools. What we are seeing is a cross section of society who are engaged, who are salt of the earth people, and we actually take a look at most measures of civic engagement , not necessarily political engagement, but civic engagement.
On most measures, they exceed that of the public school graduate. These graduates are likely to have stronger families with more children. These graduates are more engaged in neighbourhood and community groups and are involved in cultural initiatives. They vote more than government school graduates vote. They are more generous with their money to a variety of causes and more generous with their time by volunteering more. In particular, Evangelical Protestant school graduates have high satisfaction with the quality of their life and seek to contribute to the public good even though they feel that the culture makes them feel unwelcome.
Graduates of independent non-religious schools look for fulfillment expectations in their jobs, while graduates of Evangelical Protestants schools and religious homeschooling understand a strong vocational calling. These graduates focus on educating for employment rather than influence, leaving higher education when they have attained what they need for their future careers. Reflecting back on their secondary education, these graduates have high satisfaction and feel that they were prepared well for later life.
Religious attributes of conviction, spiritual formation and practices are evident for Evangelical Protestants and graduates of religious home education, while graduates of separate Catholic schools appear almost identical to those of public school. Graduate outcomes are described and discussed under three main themes: cultural, economic, and social engagement; academic achievement ; and spiritual formation. The report focuses on the school effect, meaning the impact a high school experience has on individuals and families.
They are compared to the government school graduates who are seen as the control group. Cultural, Economic, and Social Engagement[ edit ] Based on the survey, The Cardus Report suggests a number of conclusions about the cultural, economic and social engagement of non-government school graduates. First, in terms of income, there is no significant difference between all the groups compared to government school graduates.
They were less likely to be divorced or separated, and they were as likely as government school graduates to be living with a partner. Independent Catholic graduates were less likely to be living with a partner or to be divorced or separated, but as likely to be married and marry about the same age as government school graduates.
Independent non-religious graduates differed from government school graduates only in being less likely to be divorced or separated. Christian school graduates marry younger and are more likely to be married than any other group. They are also less likely to be divorced or separated and less likely to be living with a partner than graduates of government schools. They are more likely to have more children. Religious home education graduates are somewhat less likely to be divorced or separated and extremely unlikely to be co-habiting.
Though they marry at an earlier age, they are somewhat more likely to be married than government school graduates and more likely to have more children. Independent non-religious graduates act on their feelings of obligation and become involved with political campaigns. Christian school and home school graduates feel the same level of obligation, but do not act on these feelings.
Their high level of involvement in other activity could be the cause of this. Christian school and religious home-educated graduates are notably more likely to feel obligated to care for the environment, but again only the independent non-religious school graduates are significantly more environmentally active than their government school peers.
Christian school graduates are more likely to join a choir, while independent non-religious graduates are more likely to enjoy a concert or opera. All non-government school groups read more than their government school peers. These experiences are identified as "mission" or "development" trips.
Separate Catholic graduates stand out because of their trust in labour unions. Christian school graduates and religious home educated graduates show more confidence in corporations and the federal government , but less in the institutions of the federal government, the Supreme Court , the media , and the scientific community. This may correspond to the perception that society is negative toward the Christian faith. At the same time, most non-government school graduates feel that the government should do more to solve social problems.
Academic Achievement[ edit ] Graduates of independent Catholic schools and independent non-religious schools attain more years of education than government school graduates. Christian school graduates were the same as government school graduates. The home school graduate completed fewer years. In contrast, they also highly valued their high school experience and saw it as a valuable preparation.
Catholic school graduates did not show any difference in valuing their high school experience compared to their public school peers. Spiritual Formation and Religious Engagement. They are more effective than all other school categories.
These graduates are involved in their church and have done international mission work. They are developing skills for participation and contribution to their communities and neighbourhoods.
Responses from Quebec participants included graduates of fully government-funded schools, including 22 who labeled their school as Catholic; independent Catholic school graduates; and 67 independent non-religious school graduates.
One difference is that students obtain a Quebec high school diploma after successful completion of grade 11, not after grade Participants in the survey had difficulty designating their schools, with some classifying the same schools as Catholic, others as public, and still others as non-religious.
Most of these are Catholic. About half of the total sample of Quebec students survey identified themselves as coming from a Catholic independent school. The number of graduates of independent non-religious schools was too small to draw any conclusions. What the Cardus study was therefore able to do is compare the Quebec graduates who attended fully funded government schools with those who attended partially funded Catholic independent schools. Three trends emerged from the surveys.
First, graduates of the independent schools had a higher satisfaction with their high school experience. They feel prepared for their roles in society, and they have completed more years of schooling, including more post-secondary education. Second, they are involved in supporting a political candidate or a party, but less likely to protest because of the full-time work schedule that they have.
Third, their religious involvement differs very little with their government school counterparts. In the report, Cardus applauded the work of independent Catholic schools in Quebec for preparing their graduates for their careers and their socio-economic contributions to the province and the country, but Cardus also questioned whether the schools have prepared students for their life of faith.
Christian school graduates are more likely to have strong commitments to family, church and faith formation. Graduates are very involved in their churches, in mission trips and in volunteering in non-religious community work.
Their views on morality issues are parallel, and both sets of graduates have a sense of a culture around them that is negative toward them.
Three main differences can be seen in the reports. Second, American Christian school graduates donate less and are involved less in political action, but like the Canadians, they agree that they should be involved. Third, Canadian Christian school graduates volunteer outside of their religious congregation more than their American counterparts.
Cardus Audio is its podcast. In the Ancient Roman world, the cardo was a street running north to south in a city. Busy with many markets and stores, the cardo, was the center of business and the economy of any Roman town. A discussion paper was then published and followed by a research proposal. The William Voortman Fund is a private foundation in Waterdown , Ontario, which supports selected Christian organizations, with a focus on education in Ontario.
The research goals of this phase focused the connection between the motivations of Christian education and the outcomes, especially in academic excellence, spiritual formation , and cultural engagement. The Cardus Education Survey has just this purpose- to determine the alignment between the motivations and outcomes of Christian education, setting a benchmark for further study of Christian schooling. David Sikkink was the head of quantitative studies.
Questions about schooling history were included in the Science of Generosity Survey conducted in This survey was conducted by survey firm Knowledge Networks. This survey included nearly randomly sampled Americans ages 24 to 39 who completed a minute survey. The survey included questions about academic excellence, spiritual formation, and cultural engagement.
Toward the end of the survey, participants were asked to identify the type of high school that they attended. Choices included public, Catholic, conservative Protestant or "Christian school", other Christian, non-Christian religious, non-religious private or home-school. The second survey, also done by Knowledge Networks, included 1, graduates of non-government schools and graduates of government schools.
Graduates were sorted by the type of school, such as Catholic, evangelical Protestant, non-religious private, and home school. The survey includes questions about academic excellence, spiritual formation, and cultural engagement. Participants responded to a thirty-minute survey. A survey of randomly selected Canadians was administered by Vision Critical, a division of Angus Reid.
This survey included a large oversample of non-government school graduates that was limited to participants between 23 and 40 years of age. Respondents chose from the following options: Catholic, conservative Protestant or "Christian school," other Protestant school, or other type of independent school. In addition, respondents were asked the name and location of the high school from which they graduated. From these responses, participants were sorted into categories of public, separate Catholic, independent Catholic, non-religious independent, "Christian," and home school.
The forty-five-minute survey included questions about academic excellence, spiritual formation, and cultural engagement. In order to make the survey instrument comparable to the United States sample of the Cardus Education Study, several questions were replicated from the Knowledge Networks survey. The distribution of English-speaking, non-government high school participants in the analysis was as follows: Public.
The Cardus Education Survey
The report suggests that non-government schools are important contributors to education in Canada , that they contribute citizens that enhance the public good , and that these schools may have best practices that could be shared across all education systems. On September 26, , in an interview with Michael Coren , Ray Pennings the chair and coordinator of the Cardus Education Survey described what the report examined. We show the raw numbers. We control for social economic status and faith background.
Cardus Education Survey Canada
Effective schooling should therefore be orientated towards the formation of persons and recognise and celebrate the cultivation and shaping of both hearts and minds within all of our educational communities. But how do we seek to measure our effectiveness in shaping lives that contribute to the public good once they leave our schools? For nearly a decade, the Cardus Education Survey CES has collected data on the social, academic, and spiritual outcomes of nationally representative samples of secondary school graduates aged 25 — 39 in the USA and Canada. The CES data reveals that school communities are very important cultivators of moral character and civic virtue that can be leveraged more broadly for the common good and the flourishing of society. The CES aims to go beyond the politics to understand the building blocks of society itself. What are the conditions for student flourishing? Where do students learn to respect and love one another and others?
Their conversation explores the findings of nearly ten years of research into education outcomes through the Cardus Education Survey. Cardus makes CES data publicly available for individuals and groups to use. The data remain the property of Cardus, and external users must acknowledge Cardus as the source. No external use may state or imply Cardus endorsement unless such endorsement is first obtained from Cardus in writing. The CES does not study effects specific to particular groups or associations of schools. Cardus is committed to not engaging in research that would position one group of schools in relation to or against another. Individuals or groups who use CES data for this purpose are acting contrary to the spirit in which this data is being made available.