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Production procedure and costs for machining the part. Type of semi-product and consumption of material. Costs for purchase, maintenance and storage of gauges and production tools. Machine holding of the plant. Options in use of standardized parts. Hint: Although both systems are equivalent in the view of functional properties, the hole basis system is used preferably.
Running or sliding fits [RC] This includes fits with guaranteed clearances which are specified for movable couplings of those parts which have to run or slide one against the other. Locational fits [LC, LT, LN] This includes clearance or interference fits specified for precise locational positioning of coupled parts.
The coupled parts must be fixed mechanically to prevent one moving against the other during assembly. Depending on the locational positioning of tolerance zones of the coupled parts, 3 types of these fits may be distinguished: Clearance fits [LC], interference fits [LN] and transition fits [LT]. Force or shrink fits [FN] This includes guaranteed interference fits specified for fixed non-demountable couplings of parts.
Each of these groups is marked using a literal abbreviation, which together with a numerical specification of the class of fit unambiguously defines the selected fit. Select a suitable fit from the pop-up list. Properties and field of use of preferred fits are described in the following overview. When selecting a fit it is often necessary to take into account not only constructional and technological but also economic aspects. Selection of a suitable fit is important particularly in view of those measuring instruments, gauges and tools which are implemented in the production.
Therefore, follow proven plant practices when selecting a fit. Field of use of preferred fits: Running or sliding clearance fits [RC]: Fits with guaranteed clearance designed for movable couplings of parts pivots, running and sliding fits of shafts, guiding bushings, sliding gears and clutch disks, pistons of hydraulic machines, etc.
The parts can be easily slid one into the other and turn. The tolerance of the coupled parts and fit clearance increases with increasing class of the fit. RC 1: Close sliding fits with negligible clearances for precise guiding of shafts with high requirements for fit accuracy. No noticeable clearance after assembly. This type is not designed for free run. RC 2: Sliding fits with small clearances for precise guiding of shafts with high requirements for fit precision.
This type is not designed for free run; in case of greater sizes a seizure of the parts may occur even at low temperatures. RC 3: Precision running fits with small clearances with increased requirements for fit precision. Designed for precision machines running at low speeds and low bearing pressures. Not suitable where noticeable temperature differences occur. RC 4: Close running fits with smaller clearances with higher requirements for fit precision. Designed for precise machines with moderate circumferential speeds and bearing pressures.
RC 5, RC 6: Medium running fits with greater clearances with common requirements for fit precision. Designed for machines running at higher speeds and considerable bearing pressures. RC 7: Free running fits without any special requirements for precise guiding of shafts. Suitable for great temperature variations. RC 8, RC 9: Loose running fits with great clearances with parts having great tolerances.
Fits exposed to effects of corrosion, contamination by dust and thermal or mechanical deformations. Locational clearance fits [LC]: Fits with guaranteed clearances, designed for unmovable couplings where easy assembly and disassembly is required precise fits of machines and preparations, exchangeable wheels, bearing bushings, retaining and distance rings, parts of machines fixed to shafts using pins, bolts, rivets or welds, etc.
These fits are defined by the standard in a wide range of tolerances and clearances, from tight fits with negligible clearances designed for precise guiding and centring of parts [LC 1, LC 2] up to free fits with great clearances and maximum tolerances [LC 10, LC 11] where easy assembly is the primary requirement. The tolerance of coupled parts and fit clearance increases with increasing class of the fit.
Locational transition fits [LT]: These types include clearance or interference fits designed for demountable unmovable couplings where precision of fits of the coupled parts is the main requirement. The part must be fixed mechanically to prevent one moving against the other during assembly. The part can be assembled or disassembled manually. The parts can be coupled or disassembled without any great force by using a rubber mallet. Assembly of parts using low pressing forces. Locational interference fits [LN]: Fits with small interferences designed for fixed couplings where precision and rigidity of fits of the coupled parts is the main requirement.
These fits cannot be used for transfers of torsional moments using friction forces only; the parts must be secured to prevent one moving against the other. The parts can be assembled or disassembled using cold pressing and greater forces or hot pressing. Force or shrink fits [FN]: Fits with guaranteed interferences designed for fixed undetachable coupling of parts permanent couplings of gears with shafts, bearing bushings, flanges, etc.
These fits are designed, above all, for transfers of torsional moments using friction forces between shafts and hubs. The amount of interference loading capacity of the fit increases with increasing class of the fit.
Mounting of the parts using cold pressing with great pressing forces at different temperatures of the parts. FN 1: Light drive fits with small interferences designed for thin sections, long fits or fits with cast iron external members. FN 2: Medium drive fits with medium interferences designed for ordinary steel parts or fits with high-grade cast iron external members. FN 3: Heavy drive fits with great interferences designed for heavier steel parts.
The tolerance zone is defined as a spherical zone limited by the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part. The tolerance zone is therefore determined by the amount of the tolerance and its position related to the basic size.
Limit deviations of the hole tolerance zone are calculated in this paragraph for the specified basic size [2. The respective hole tolerance zone is set up according to the preferred fit selected in row [2. Limit deviations of the shaft tolerance zone are calculated in this paragraph for the specified basic size [2.
The respective shaft tolerance zone is set up according to the preferred fit selected in row [2. Parameters of the selected fit are calculated and mutual positions of tolerance zones of the hole and shaft are displayed in this paragraph. Note: Dimensional data in the picture are given in thousandths of inches. Important functional dimensions particularly those that could cause confusion in mounting of the parts are tolerated usually individually by the addition of a tolerance mark or numerical value of the deviation to the respective basic size.
Other dimensions where high precision of production is not required can be tolerated using a general record in the drawing. The standard ISO is an internationally recognized standard for tolerancing of these linear and angular dimensions. The standard ISO is designed for tolerancing of dimensions of machine parts produced using cutting operations or forming of sheets. It is advisable to use limit deviations defined here also with non-metallic materials. This standard prescribes limit deviations of linear and angular dimensions in four classes of accuracy.
When choosing a tolerance class it is necessary in addition to the constructional aspects to also take into account, above all, the usual accuracy of the production shop. General limit deviations according to ISO are divided into 3 groups tables : Limit deviations for linear dimensions [3. With dimensions up to 0.
Note: In case general limit deviations of dimensions according to this standard have to be applied, a respective record must be placed in the drawing in the description field or in its vicinity. Hint: If not in contradiction with constructional and technological requirements, use preferably a medium class of accuracy "m" for machined metal parts. Design of fit for specific allowance. The fit design is based on the standard ISO see . The fit design is processed automatically and after its completion, the calculation provides the user with a set of 15 fits whose parameters meet the best requirements entered in paragraph [4.
Although there can be generally coupled parts without any tolerance zones, only two methods of coupling of holes and shafts are recommended due to constructional, technological and economic reasons.
Hole basis system The desired clearances and interferences in the fit are achieved by combinations of various shaft tolerance zones with the hole tolerance zone "H". In this system of tolerances and fits, the lower deviation of the hole is always equal to zero. Shaft basis system The desired clearances and interferences in the fit are achieved by combinations of various hole tolerance zones with the shaft tolerance zone "h".
In this system of tolerances and fits, the upper deviation of the hole is always equal to zero.
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