Far from being innate or natural, these acts are socialized, with the purpose of standardizing heterosexual identity. Fraudulent femininity conceals a wish for masculinity that must be hidden out of a fear of not being accepted by men. The case from which Riviere develops this argument involves a successful intellectual woman who seeks reassurance from men after her public engagements, most prominently in the form of sexual attentions. In an indirect manner, she flirts and coquettes with men to obtain sexual advances from them.

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Simply move the mouse pointer over the icon and click on it for the information to appear. Riviere, J. Womanliness as a Masquerade. Welcome to PEP Web! Viewing the full text of this document requires a subscription to PEP Web. If you are coming in from a university from a registered IP address or secure referral page you should not need to log in.

Contact your university librarian in the event of problems. If you have a personal subscription on your own account or through a Society or Institute please put your username and password in the box below. Any difficulties should be reported to your group administrator. Not already a subscriber? Order a subscription today. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, Womanliness as a Masquerade Joan Riviere Every direction in which psycho-analytic research has pointed seems in its turn to have attracted the interest of Ernest Jones, and now that of recent years investigation has slowly spread to the development of the sexual life of women, we find as a matter of course one by him among the most important contributions to the subject.

As always, he throws great light on his material, with his peculiar gift both clarifying the knowledge we had already and also adding to it fresh observations of his own. He acknowledges the roughly schematic nature of his classification and postulates a number of intermediate types.

It is with one of these intermediate types that I am to-day concerned. In daily life types of men and women are constantly met with who, while mainly heterosexual in their development, plainly display strong features of the other sex. This has been judged to be an expression of the bisexuality inherent in us all; and analysis has shown that what appears as homosexual or heterosexual character-traits, or sexual manifestations, is the end-result of the interplay of conflicts and not necessarily evidence of a radical or fundamental tendency.

The difference between homosexual and heterosexual development results from differences in the degree of anxiety, with the corresponding effect this has on development. I shall attempt to show that women who wish for masculinity may put on a mask of womanliness to avert anxiety and the retribution feared from men. It is with a particular type of intellectual woman that I have to deal.

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Joan Riviere

Her interests were primarily artistic and she was for a time a court dressmaker. She took an interest in divorce reform and the suffragette movement. Her uncle, Arthur Woollgar Verrall organised meetings of the Society for Psychical Research where she discovered the work of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones , and this stimulated her interest in psychoanalysis. Suffering from emotional distress, she went for therapeutic psychoanalysis with Ernest Jones in In and she spent some time in a sanatorium because of nerves. Jones was impressed by her understanding of psychoanalytic principles and processes and she became a founding member of the British Psychoanalytical Society , formed in



Available at www. She was afraid of impotence in exactly the same way as a man. This was partly a determination to surpass certain mother—figures who were frigid, but on deeper levels it was a determination not to be beaten by the man. The article appeared in in a special issue no 7 of La Psychanalyse the journal of the Society on the question of feminine sexuality. It is not at all a question of bringing into play a notion which was not within her range? I spoke to you about it in connection with the discussion concerning the phallic woman or phase and the phallic function in feminine sexuality. She demonstrates with convincing clinical material a fraudulent femininity in a certain type of woman, not overtly homosexual, but not fully heterosexual.


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By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. She was married in The idea of an organised system of defence has commanded the interest of succeeding analysts. Edited by Juliet Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. Her father was a solicitor with an important literary background. If the woman is described to force her femininity in order to be masqufrade accepted by men, then gender itself exists for that purpose.



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