A filosofia formal chama-se Lgica; a material, porem que se ocupa de determinados objetos e das leis a que eles esto submetidos, por usa vez dupla, pois que estas leis ou 1 so leis da natureza ou 2 leis da liberdade. A cincia da primeira chamase Fsica, a da outra a tica; aquela chama-se teoria da natureza, esta Teoria dos Costumes. Pag Com efeito, A metafsica dos Costumes deve investigar a idia e os princpios duma possvel vontade pura, e no as aes e condies do querer humano em geral, as quais so tiradas na maior parte da Psicologia pag no distinguem os motivos de determinao que, como tais, se apresentam totalmente a priori s pela razo e so propriamente morais, dos motivos empricos, que o entendimento eleva a conceitos universais s pelo confronto das experincias. Suponho que seja esta: ainda aqui, como em todos os outros casos continua a existir uma lei que lhe prescreve a promoo da sua felicidade, no por inclinao, mas por dever e somente ento que o seu comportamento tem propriamente um valor moral. Em que que reside pois este valor, se ele se no encontra na vontade considerada em relao com efeito esperado dessas aes? No pode residir em mais parte alguma seno no principio da vontade, abstraindo dos fins que possam ser realizados por uma tal ao; pag A terceira preposio, conseqncia das duas anteriores, formul-la-ia eu assim: - dever a necessidade de uma ao por respeito lei.

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However, the issue of property should not be approached in a way that does not suit him. Defend, for example, the well through aesthetic or religious arguments, or worse, through a manipulative and deceptive argument can not possibly agree.

Any Kantian existence was dedicated to the Sovereign Good and his whole philosophy comes in: There is nowhere anything in the world, or even in general out of this, make it possible to think of that could be held without restriction good, except a good will. It must be ensured to proceed honestly, to do the research for oneself first before presenting it as a free option to others.

Saying this, on a metaphysical question of the way, even the most honest research could lead irresistibly to the human that makes dogmatism or skepticism, places where morality disappears, because skepticism does not believe and because dogmatism believes be in illusion. To avoid falling into one of these legal dead ends, so it is necessary to first establish clearly what are the openings and the limits of human reason to firmly establish a critical position that morality can be continued safely.

To do this, Kant wrote his Critique of Pure Reason. Thereafter, without fear of falling into metaphysical raciocination, it should then finally be able to afford to address the issue that is closest to his heart: that of morality. And this is undoubtedly the failure of his deduction of the freedom that has retained some time to write his Metaphysics of Morals. Morality is indeed impossible if freedom is not present. But since the content of morality is made present to us through the categorical imperative, how is it that freedom, which must necessarily accompany it, can not be deducted?

Is that the entire deduction up to the amoral world of logic and necessity, while freedom implies a jump in thinking or in existence. She escapes, in its essence to all needs and all causalities.

This leap, Kant is not yet ready to assume in his writing when he produced his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. We can observe the emergence that jump, if we have the eye to this fact, in the early parts of his Critique of Practical Reason he wrote three years later. However, I do not want to abuse the patience of the people who have kindly read this little reflection which wants explanation on this very important piece of Kantian philosophy.

The whole is a must read to anyone interested, for his own life or just curious, by moral principles or philosophy in general. And for others, it reads very well for the Kantian reader and it is a very wealthy and good thinking exercise.

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Metafísica dos Costumes


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